A growing population, unchecked discharge of industrial and domestic waste into the environment and increasing extraction of groundwater are worsening the freshwater crisis in Pakistan. The situation reminds the government and people about the grim reality of soaring demand and decreasing supply of water for agriculture, energy and food production, healthy ecosystems and human survival itself.
According to a recent International Monetary Fund (IMF) report, Pakistan is ranked third among the list of countries facing serious water shortages. It is despite the fact that no country in the world has more glaciers than Pakistan but it still ranks as the 14th most water stressed country in the world. The Pakistan Council Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has warned that Pakistan may run out of water by 2025. The surface and groundwater resources are fast depleting due to rapid urbanisation, pollution and changing climate. Experts underscore the need for promoting nature-based solutions, such as rainwater harvesting systems, to help address freshwater challenges. They propose smart environmental management practices across the country to improve management of freshwater.
The water crisis is deepening in Pakistan with every passing day. It is not that Pakistan does not have the resources. Of the total 145 million acre foot (MAF) water that flows annually through Pakistan, up to only 14 MAF can now be stored by its two reservoirs. Experts say Pakistan is throwing 21 MAF water into the sea every year which can fill three reservoirs of the size of the Mangla Dam. The level of underground water is also continuously dropping in Pakistan. According to estimates, the underground water plunges in Islamabad by one metre, in Lahore half metre and in Balochistan six metres every year.
Today, some 2.2 billion people lack safe drinking water and 4.2 billion people live without access to adequate sanitation, says a latest United Nations report which calls for reducing both impacts and drivers of climate change and major shifts in the way we use and reuse the Earth’s limited water resources. The new global report calls, among others, for concrete efforts to address rising water stress and improve the efficiency of water use in agriculture and industry, and it outlines actions in three areas: first, enabling people to adapt to the impacts of climate change; second, improving the resilience of livelihoods; and, third, reducing the drivers of climate change.
The 2020 UN World Water Development Report, compiled by the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), in collaboration with UN-Water, provides decision-makers with knowledge and tools to craft sustainable water policies, and calls for scaling up investment to put them into practice. Tackling water insecurity and climate change, two of the most critical crises the world will continue facing over the next several decades. The 2020 World Water Development Report reveals that water use has increased six-fold over the past century and is rising by about one per cent a year. However, it is estimated that climate change, along with the increasing frequency and intensity of extreme events, storms, floods and droughts, will aggravate the situation in countries already experiencing “water stress” and generate similar problems in areas that have not been severely affected.
Furthermore, the report highlights the fact that poor water management tends to exacerbate the impacts of climate change, not only on water resources but on society as a whole. By limiting global heating to 1.5 degrees Celsius, the world will be in a much better position to manage and solve the water crisis. Water is the primary medium through which we perceive the effects of climate disruption, from extreme weather events, such as droughts and floods, to glacial melting, saltwater intrusion and sea level rise. It will negatively affect health and productivity and act as a threat multiplier for instability and conflict.
UNESCO said that with four billion people worldwide forced to contend with water scarcity, without sustainable access to water, the world will be unable to achieve goals such as quality education or the development of more prosperous, fairer societies. It calls on countries to make more concrete commitments to address the challenge, and warns that climate change would affect the availability, quality and quantity of water needed for basic human needs, thus undermining enjoyment of the basic rights to safe drinking water and sanitation for billions of people.
The deterioration of the situation would only hinder achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG6), which is part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, according to which access to safe drinking water and sanitation must be guaranteed for all within 10 years. This will be a considerable challenge: 2.2 billion people currently do not have access to safely managed drinking water, and 4.2 billion, or 55 per cent of the world’s population, are without safely managed sanitation. UNESCO said that the critical need to substantially improve access to clean water for drinking and hygiene for billions of the world’s people has been further thrown into stark relief by the current deadly outbreak of COVID-19.
International estimates say water scarcity is particularly acute in Asia as rapid population growth, industrial development and urbanisation heightens the water crisis in the largest and most populous continent. Home to 4.5 billion people, the Asian population uses around 65 per cent of the world’s water supply. Agriculture accounts for the largest use of water, followed by industrial and municipal uses. According to research from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis’ (IIASA) Water Program, water scarcity will increase in 74-86 per cent of regions in Asia, with about 40 per cent of the continent’s population facing severe water scarcity by 2050.
In Pakistan, the per capita availability of water has dipped below the minimum level of 1,000 cubic metres per year. At least a 14.2pc increase in water availability is required to meet the needs of Pakistan’s ballooning population by 2025. Over 27 million Pakistanis lack access to potable water and almost 70pc water is unfit for human consumption. According to estimates, over 80pc of the population of the rural areas is getting contaminated water. Almost 250,000 children under the age of five die every year of waterborne disease, costing the economy around $1.3 billion. Four-fifths of all diseases in Pakistan, such as cholera, diarrhea, typhoid and hepatitis, are caused by contaminated water.
Experts say the country gets 84pc water in the monsoon season and arrangements should be made to store it. One dam should be built after every 10 years. Pakistan has already wasted time and not a new dam has been built in decades. On the other hand, Pakistan’s capacity to store water has reduced by 12pc due to silting in the dams. Some experts claim Pakistan still has sufficient water for its needs but it will have to use the precious resource judiciously to save future generations from crisis.